2022 brings the 5th warmest April on Earth »Yale Climate Connections

2022 brings the 5th warmest April on Earth »Yale Climate Connections

April 2022 was associated with April 2010 as the fifth warmest April on Earth since world records began in 1880, 0.85 degrees Celsius (1.53 ° F) above the 20th century average, he said. NOAA National Environmental Information Center, NCEI, NASA May 13. rated April 2022 as the seventh warmest April on record, 1.10 degrees Celsius (1.98 ° F) above 1880-1920, its best estimate of when the pre-industrial temperatures last occurred. The European Climate Change Agency Copernicus rated April 2022 as the sixth warmest April on record. Small differences in the classification of organisms may arise from the different ways in which they treat sparsely populated areas, such as the Arctic.

Land areas had the sixth warmest April recorded in 2022, with global ocean temperatures the eighth warmest recorded, according to NOAA. Asia had the warmest April on record, with temperatures particularly high in India and Pakistan. Oceania had the fifth warmest April in its history and Africa equalized for the ninth warmest April. In contrast, the continuous US showed temperatures that were slightly lower than the April histories, ranking it as the 50th coldest since 1895.

The global warming temperature from the year to date was the fifth highest recorded and the year 2022 is more than 99% likely to rank among the 10 warmest years recorded and about 28% likely to rank in the top five, NOAA said . There is only a 1.4% chance that 2022 will be ranked as the warmest year on record, mainly because La Niña conditions are now more likely to prevail throughout the year (see below).

Figure 1. Temperature deviation from the average for April 2022, which is equivalent to the fifth warmest April in the world since record keeping began in 1880, according to NOAA. Record warm temperatures in April were observed in areas of central South America, the Oceania region, the southwestern Pacific Ocean and a large area in southern and southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa. No large area showed a cold record. (Image credit: NOAA / NCEI)

The deadliest weather disaster to date in 2022: floods in South Africa

The deadliest weather disaster to date in 2022 occurred on April 7-13, when catastrophic floods hit the KwaZulu-Natal region of South Africa after a dead-end low-pressure system that rained down torrential rains. More than 300 mm (12 inches) of rain fell in 24 hours near the coastal city of Durban on April 11-12. The disaster killed at least 435 people and caused more than $ 1.5 billion in damage. Heavy rainfall is more likely in South Africa when, as at the moment, there is a La Niña event.

The second deadliest weather disaster so far this year was the flood in Brazil on February 15, which caused a landslide that killed 232 people in the Petropolis area.

Figure 2. Deviation of sea surface temperature from the middle in the Niño 3.4 reference zone of the eastern tropical Pacific (5 ° N-5 ° S, 170 ° N-120 ° W). Temperatures range from 0.7 to 1.0 degrees Celsius below the average since mid-April. (Image credit: Tropical Tidbits)

La Niña insists

La Niña conditions remained in April and are expected to continue during the summer in the northern hemisphere and in autumn and early winter (58% probability in August-October and 61% probability in November-January). NOAA reported in its monthly discussion in April on the status of El Niño / Southern Oscillation or ENSO. The odds of an El Nino incident do not exceed 5% in early 2023.

Last month, sea surface temperatures in the Niño reference region 3.4 of the eastern tropical Pacific (5 ° N-5 ° S, 170 ° W-120 ° W) were around 0.9 degrees Celsius below average. . The range for “weak” La Niña conditions is 0.5-1.0 degrees Celsius below average. the range for “moderate” La Niña conditions is 1.0-1.5 degrees Celsius below average.

The forecast by NOAA and the International Institute for Climate and Society Research at Columbia University for the Atlantic hurricane season (August-September-October) is a 58% probability of La Niña, a 38% probability of neutral 4% chance of El Nino. If it did, a third consecutive northern winter with La Niña in 2022-23 would be unusual, but not unprecedented: Three-year La Niña sequences appeared in 1973-76 and 1998-2001.

Atlantic hurricane seasons during El Niιοo events tend to be quiet due to the increased vertical shear of the wind over the Atlantic. With the current forecast requiring only a small chance of an El Niιοo, a seventh consecutive active hurricane season in the Atlantic is likely to occur in 2022.

The impact of the current La Niña event may be enhanced by a strongly negative Decadal Oscillation of the Pacific or PDO. The PDO is an indicator of sea surface temperatures in the northeastern and tropical Pacific Oceans that reflects some of the aspects of El Nino-South oscillation traffic. The PDO can change abruptly from month to month, but it usually tilts positive (hot) or negative (cold) for a few years at a time. Almost every month since 2017 has a negative PDO and the April price was the second lowest for each April since 1956. When the PDO is negative, the effects of La Niña are often more pronounced.

Arctic sea ice: 11th-lowest April area recorded

The extent of Arctic sea ice in April 2022 was the 11th lowest in the 44-year record for satellites, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, NSIDC. There is some relatively good news, but sea ice was nearing its lowest 10 percent of all time, and it is unlikely that the long-term decline in Arctic sea ice will have stopped.

The Antarctic ice sheet in April was the fifth lowest ever recorded.

Remarkable world signs of heat and cold for April 2022

The following information is courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera. Follow him on Twitter: @extremetemps:

– The hottest April temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: 49.0 ° C (120.2 ° F) in Jacobabad, Pakistan, 30 April.
– Coldest April in the Northern Hemisphere: -52.5 ° C (-62.5 ° F) in Summit, Greenland, April 10.
– The hottest April temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 42.1 ° C (107.8 ° F) in Mantora, Australia, April 14th.
– Coldest April in the Southern Hemisphere: -79.4 ° C (-110.9 ° F) in Concordia, Antarctica, 17 April.
Highest average temperature 2022 to date (Jan-Apr) in the Southern Hemisphere: 32.6 ° C (90.7 ° F) in Roebourne and Marble Bar, Australia. and
– Highest average temperature in 2022 to date (Jan.-Apr.) In the Northern Hemisphere: 32.7 ° C (90.9 ° F) in Kenieba, Mali.

Major meteorological stations in April: there are no all-time hot or cold records

Among the world stations with a record of at least 40 years, no one recorded, or even equaled, an all-time hot or cold record in April.

Three national / territorial heat records of all seasons set or equaled in 2022

By the end of April, three nations or territories had set or had set a reliably measured national heat record of all time:

Paraguay: 45.6 ° C (114.1 ° F) at Sombrero Hovy, January 1;
Australia: 50.7 ° C (123.3 ° F) at Onslow AP, January 13 (draw). and
Uruguay: 44.0 ° C (111.2 ° F) in Florida, January 14 (tie).

Two national / territorial cold records of all time were set or tied in 2022

By the end of April, two nations or territories had set or leveled a national cold record of all time:

Montenegro: -33.4 ° C (-28.1 ° F) in Kosanica, January 25; and
Myanmar: -6.0 ° C (-21.2 ° F) in Hakha, 29 January (draw).

Nineteen additional monthly national / territorial heat records were broken or leveled at the end of April

In addition to the three national / territorial all-time records listed above, 19 nations or regions have set monthly all-time heat records in 2022, for a total of 22 monthly all-time records:

– January (11): Mexico, USA, Croatia, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Comoros, Mayotte, Maldives, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Montenegro.
– February (2): Papua New Guinea, Pakistan.
– March (3): Myanmar, Pakistan, Mauritius.
– April (3): British Indian Ocean Territory, Hong Kong, Chad

Four additional monthly national / territorial cold records hit or equalize in late April

In addition to the two national / territorial all-time records listed above, four nations or regions have set monthly cold all-time records in 2022, for a total of six monthly all-time records:

– March (2): Montenegro and Cyprus.
– April (2): Andorra, Laos

Hemispherical and continental temperature record in 2022

Highest temperature ever recorded in North America in January: 41.7 ° C (107.1 ° F) in Gallinas, Mexico, January 1.

Highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere (tie) and world record for highest temperature ever recorded in January: 50.7 ° C (123.3 ° F) at Onslow AP, Australia, January 13th.

– Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in South America: 32.2 ° C (90.0 ° F) in Pampa del Infierno, Argentina, 17 January. and

– Highest minimum temperature ever recorded in January in the Northern Hemisphere: 29.3 ° C (84.7 ° F) in Kenieba, Mali, on 15 January (and again on 30 January).

Bob Henson contributed to this post.

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